Attention Deficit/Hyperactive disorder is characterized by socially disruptive behaviours-
Hyperactivity is a confusing term because it refers to both a diagnostic category and behavioral characteristics. Children who are "overactive" or who have "short attention spans" are often referred to as "hyperactive", even though they may not meet the diagnostic criteria for this disorder.
Three type of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorders are recognized:
ADHD, predominantly hyperactive-
ADHD, predominantly inattentive type, is characterized by problems such as distractibility, difficulty with sustained attention, inattention to detail, and difficulty completing tasks. Children with attention deficits tend to have less severe conduct problems and impulsivity than children with the hyperactive form of ADHD. Instead they are more likely to be desribed as sluggish, daydreamers, anxious, and shy.
ADHD, combined type, is probably the most common form of the disorder. In this case, the criteria for both the hyperactive and inattentive types are met.
Research has proven Neurofeedback therapy to be an effective, non-
Neurofeedback is a safe, non-
The American academy of pediatrics approved the biofeedback and neurofeedback as a level 1 "best support" treatment option for children suffering from ADHD.
Children with ADD/ADHD become more aware of their physiological responses with neurofeedback training.
They learn to gain control of their physiological reponses as a result.
In general the left and right cerebral hemispheres are involved in different aspects of attention.
The left hemisphere is involved in focused, selective attention and informaton processing.
The principle neurotransmitter for sustained attentional activity and information processing is dopamine
It is postulated that in ADD there is reduced dopamine in the fronto-
The right hemisphere of the brain is involved in the general maintenance of attention
and arousal, which is wide to extra-
In ADD there might be excessive locus coeruleus norepinephrine production and excess noradrenergic stimulation to the right cerebral hemisphere. Overactivation of the noradrenergic system in the right hemisphere is associated with extroversion, histrionic behavior, impulsivity and manic behaviours.
Neurofeedback restores the strength of the frontal region of the brain, and builds
a better connection between the mid-
Neuro feedback is shown to be a favourable option that provides the same results as medication.
Neurofeedback improve the systems of ADHD in a reasonable percentage of children who have this disorder. The goal of neurofeedback training is to effect a lasting change in the system through learning.
Increased theta (drowsiness) are seen in the prefrontal cortex and and central brain as well as an excess of Alpha at central and frontal brain in the EEG in children with ADD. EEG differences between children with ADHD and normals (higher theta/beta ratios) have been shown in a number of studies. Neurofeedback training has been shown to have lowered the theta/beta ratios significantly.
High amplitude beta waves has been observed in ADD with comorbid disorders, including depression, obsessive compulsive disorders etc.
Children learn how to gain control of the brain's frontal lobes, which is the executive functioning center.
The number of sessions required vary from individual to individual, depending on severity of the symptoms.
It is however proven that minimum 20-